This course fills a five weeks block and consists of the following four components:
- Physical Oceanography
- Marine Geosciences
- Marine Chemistry
- Marine Biogeochemsitry
Thermohaline convection in the ocean. Properties of the ocean and methods for measuring these properties. Dynamic forces in the ocean; equatorial and coastal upwelling, ENSO, subtropical gyres: Sverdrup circulation, vorticity. Circulation of the deep ocean, formation of water masses.
T/S structure of the ocean and global circulation, physico-chemistry of water and sea water, solved, colloidal and particulate components, import by rivers, atmosphere and hydro-thermal vents, nutrients and bio-relevant elements, bio-productivity and carbon cycle, trace element cycles, CO2 in the ocean and global climate change; introduction to marine chemical analytics with regard to standard and advanced methods: salinity determination, conductivity measurements, oxygen determination by Winkler titration, photometric determination of nutrients nitrate, phosphate, pH, alkalinity.
Reconstruction of palaeo-climate based on deep-sea sediments: What climate archives are useful for what time frame? How are deep-sea sediments of different ages sampled? How do we "measure" palaeo-climate? What kind of fossils are useful? Micro-organisms as indicators for palaeo-climate and oceans. The Earth system: Development and structure of atmosphere, continents and oceans; endogenic forces: plate tectonics, earth quakes, vulcanism; morphology of ocean basins; climate archive in marine sediments; climate history of the last 2 Mio. years: indicator organisms in palaeo-climate research; anthropogenic use of the sea floor: energy and other resources.
Global elemental cycles of C, N, P, O, Fe, S; important sources, sinks and processes in global biogeochemical cycles; carbonate system in the ocean; biological pump; dynamic systems, box models; mathematical models of global elemental cycles.
Fundamental understanding of the dynamic processes in the ocean and their climate-relevant role. Understanding of oceanic processes, which affect marine biology.
Understanding of the fundamental chemical processes in the ocean, especially with regard to biotic effects, distribution patterns of elements and processes as part of elemental cycles, role of speciation, components of the carbon cycle, sources and sinks in the marine environment. The practical will demonstrate quantitative-analytical methods for hydrographic measurements and chemical standard methods in oceanography.
Students learn the principles and processes for the reconstruction of climate history and which climate parameters can be reconstructed with what precision. They learn the fundamental sampling methods and analyses techniques for marine sediments. Fundamentals in geology, marine geo sciences and palaeo-climate research. Students learn to think in geological time scales and how modern interdisciplinary marine research works.
Understanding of the complexity of global elemental cycles and the role of anthropogenic impacts.